Daily Archives: 7th May 2020

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Sophie Gregson

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Sophie Gregson

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles

Guest Blog by: Sophie Gregson

Jungles cover less than six percentage of the earth’s surface, but they are home to half of all the plants and animals on land. They receive just the right amount of light, water and nutrients and have every day for millennia. Life here in these edens should be easy…

Jungles 1

Indri are primates that call the forests of Madagascar its home, to survive here it faces one major challenge: over population. Every species here is competing with one another for food and space which is very limited, this jungle is the most competitive place on earth. If they wish to survive they must adapt in order to compete with their surroundings, this is extremely similar with mankind. Mankind also has a major problem with overcrowding with more and more houses having to be built in order to support the fast growing population, land is becoming less and less available with this in mind many people have decided to adapt to this. The tiny home movement is one that I definitely support, these homes don’t exceed five hundred square feet but contain all the necessary equipment for day to day life. They are also eco friendly and built to live off the grid not to mention they are absolutely beautifully crafted. Demand is simply so high for certain products that small farmers could no longer keep up, they either had to sell their land to bigger companies or completely change their way of farming to mass production. Just like the animals, humans have had to adapt the way they live the way they produce food in order to survive.

Jungles 2

Spider monkeys live together in groups, they spend their whole lives in the tops of the trees. Once the young are born they must learn to climb to the highest points in order to search for food. They must learn to use their tail as a safety net which can be difficult as well as deadly, one bad move and it could be certain death. The family will show the young how to climb, the brother and sisters will teach the younger ones how to use their tail using play while dad keeps a close eye. As the young practices and travels throughout the forest the dad is always close by and watching to ensure they are safe, if they ever do run into trouble dad is always on hand to help. Just like humans the spider monkeys demonstrate a parental bond with their young, a sense of responsibiliy to ensure their safety while they learn and grow. Just like the spider monkeys, human families will teach their young skills through play, using games to teach shapes and numbers isn’t much different from the spider monkeys using chase and tug with their tails to demonstrate how it must be used. These skills are a necessity in life and key to their survival.

Jungles 3

Many problems we face in the human world animals also struggle with. In both the animal kingdom and the human world over crowding is a massive problem, the fight for space and resources is something that we on earth, both animal and human, will always have to face. With more and more being born everyday the world just seems to be getting smaller and smaller, almost like we’ve out grown our planet but we’ve no where to go…

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Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Aine Mallon

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Aine Mallon

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles

Guest Blog by: Aine Mallon

Introduction

Jungles/rainforests are often called the lungs of the planet for their part in absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen which the animals and plants depend upon for survival. Jungles are home to half of the world’s animals and plants on land. In this report I will discuss how different species within this habitat have adapted to survive due to many factors such as competition for food and limited space, along with the negative implications related to human activities and climate change. I also want to highlight how we can refer to the survival skills within the animal kingdom during COVID-19.

Indri-primate

Survival is not easy for this species as they face many challenges in relation to all striving for food and space in the area. The jungle has been described as the most competitive place on earth for survival. However, the indri has adapted to jungle life by making distinctive songs, which can last from 45 seconds to more than 3 minutes. This is done not only for solidifying contacts between groups, the songs may communicate territorial defence and boundaries, reproductive potential of the group members, and warning signals. This reminds other species to not cross their territory because the jungle is a sanctuary for all to live peacefully.

Jungles 1

Another primate which has adapted to their habitat in the jungle is the spider monkey. They are built for climbing because of their distinctive features: the prehensile tail and the hook-like hands, both making the spider monkey ideal for arboreal (tree) life. What we can gather from both these species is their dependence on their family as they thrive in big social groups. During these uncertain times what we can rely on is family and friends to help get us through this. Technology has allowed us to see loved ones when we cannot visit, through skype and FaceTime, to still be there for each other. Family is very important within the human and animal kingdom, during COVID-19 we are relying on loved ones to support one another and it is bringing families together again.

Jungles 2

The Hura-tree

Everything in the jungle competes for space. This evergreen-tree was said to have raced for space to ensure it received light from the sun to grow in to a giant tree, now it has risen above the gloom of the jungle floor. With this tree being so tall (some are measured at 40 metres) it allows it to reach the sunlight meaning that many plants can use it. Its successful growth has given life to other plants including orchids and figs. This is a prime example of the features and characteristic of the jungle working together to sustain all matter of life. It is also a safe place for a diversity of plants to grow because of its common name ‘Monkey-no-climb tree’ which is in reference to the characteristic spiky trunk. Plants can thrive here on the taller parts of the tree to receive enough sun for photosynthesis as well as having no fear of monkeys too.

We have witnessed a range of panic-buyers overloading with one of the same items, however the competition for resources has calmed down now. People are beginning to see the bigger picture and that this is a time to help all those in need by volunteering to deliver necessities to people’s homes.

 

The impact of the weather for different species

Jungles are the richest place on earth, they have even been known to ‘make their own weather.’ Trees are a vital part of this in the jungle, because the trees gather rainwater on their leaves which is then returned to the atmosphere as vapour, in a way, the trees breathe out clouds. Rainforests are subject to such heavy rainfall, for example in Brazil, trees can be submerged from rain. Due to this it provides an opportunity for other species you would not expect to find in the rainforest. The river dolphin has been found here during the heavy rainfall season. They are almost totally blind in this water; however, river dolphins use their conical-shaped teeth and long beaks to capture fast-moving prey in murky water. These species are well-adapted to living in warm, shallow waters.

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It is very unusual to see dolphins here, but we have witnessed many shocking sightings of species in parts of the world during COVID-19. Dolphins and swans were indeed spotted in some of Italy’s waterways after the nationwide lockdown was imposed. In the jungles, where there is very little human interference, we have learnt that dolphins migrate to these waters. Just like in the rainforest, as our world has been put at a stop with no tourism and work, we are witnessing a change in the natural environment and where once was the busiest and polluted canals in Italy, is a sanctuary for different species. COVID-19 may be a way for the nation to see how the natural world will reclaim its space during this silent time, and the environment will heal itself.

The impacts of human activities and climate change  

The jungles are a place of wonder and magic, meant to be a safe place for the species within it however 10,000 square kilometres of Amazon rainforest has been destroyed in the last year. 90% of animals spend their whole lives in trees but deforestation is continuing at alarming rates. The loss of trees and other vegetation will increase the rate of climate change, desertification, soil erosion, fewer crops, flooding, increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and a host of problems for indigenous people. Tropical deforestation accounts for up to 15% of net global carbon emissions each year.

Trees and other plants, like all living things, are made up of carbon. But when forests are cleared or burned, much of that carbon ends up in the atmosphere, like burning fossil fuels. This carbon changes the planet’s climate and contributes to rising temperatures, stronger storms, more severe droughts and rising sea levels.

We need to act now and there are many ways everyone can help protect the jungles to protect its value and species within it by,

  • Teaching others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests.
  • Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down.
  • Encourage people to live in a way that doesn’t hurt the environment.
  • Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment
Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Michael McCoy

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Michael McCoy

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles

Guest Blog by: Michael McCoy

Covering less than 6% of the Earths surface, the Jungle is home to more than half of the plants and animals on land. Filled with lush tropical plants, each species competes not just for food, but also for space making the jungles some of the most competitive places on the planet.

 Spider monkeys have adapted to life in the jungle through the adaptation of large limbs with long, gripping tails for holding onto branches. This allows the Spider monkeys to be able to climb and navigate its way through even the tallest of trees. However, only 30% of Spider monkeys reach adulthood as many young can easily fall from great heights and not survive. The young are more encouraged to develop this technique by themselves under minimal supervision of the parents. Only in great peril will the parents step in to save their young. Humans themselves have adapted in similar manner for teaching their young how to survive in the world, although we take more care to ensure accidents don’t happen. In Human society we have schools where students learn the vital skills such as communication. Although we do not have a tail to help with climbing, humans have adapted by inventing climbing equipment (e.g. ladder) to access areas that would normally be out of our reach.

 Draco Lizards could live their entire live on one tree as it would provide the lizard with enough food for a lifetime. However, only one tree would be sustainable for one lizard. Therefore, if two Draco lizards come into contact on the same tree they have two options: they must fight or flee. Many individuals choose to flee if competing against larger rivals. The lizards can extend their ribs and connecting membrane to create wing-like features which helps the lizards glide to safety if fleeing. For Humans, instead of fighting over resources, people have adapted by trading. Trading allowed the exchange of resources without there being any physical confrontation. In today’s age, food is traded in exchange for money, which helps with the growth of more food. As resources are not distributed equally, many people will transport food from one area to another using aeroplanes and trucks.

The blood of the jungle is water, as it flows through the rainforests in rivers and consistent periods of rainfall is key for the survival of many plants and animals alike. The jungle creates its own weather by allowing for rapid evaporation of water from leaves which results in low clouds over the canopy. The clouds then release the water in torrential downpours. Every species has to deal with this, many do so by hiding under leaves for shelter. Humans have adapted from extreme rainfall by building houses in high up areas and having roofs which prevent water seeping through to ensure people are warm and dry. The heavy rainfall can cause flooding with some areas being submerged in 30 feet of rainfall. This has allowed for the adaptation of aquatic species to thrive.

Along the riverside, many species live and thrive as they have access to both water and food. Crocodile–like creatures known as Caiman live in the rivers and attack any species it can find by sneaking up on the prey with its streamline body and capture prey with its powerful bite. Prey includes fish mostly as well as some mammals such as Capybara, the largest rodent species in the world. The Capybara have adapted to swim in the river to be able to eat fish themselves, move between riverbanks as well as being able to cool off in the warm sunny weather. Humans have always seen rivers as important resources as they also utilise the river for fresh supplies of water. Humans have been able to catch fish through creating nets and inventing fishing poles. Water was also extracted for bathing, drinking and getting rid of waste. Civilisations have travelled in search of water and have built their homes near it. Even today, many of the great cities such as London, New York, Budapest and Paris have rivers flowing through them. Rivers have proven essential for the development of Human life.

 The Jungle forces many species to have specialised traits and characteristics, this includes courtships. Male Red Birds-of-paradise preform a dance to impress the females. The dance includes moving up and down on branches of the trees. The female then chooses a partner based on the dance they preferred the best. Wilson Birds-of-paradise stay near the ground, and require a bit more effort to capture the attention of the female. The male must first find a patch of light so they can be easily seen, have a branch that hangs down so he can stand on as well as removing any brightly coloured leaves, especially green ones. This is all so the female is not distracted and will focus solely on him. Humans today are quite similar with people focused on the way they look to attract a partner. Make-up and other cosmetics have been introduced to enhance features along with some even using plastic surgery for cosmetic effect. A large amount of people also do regular exercise to get bodies they feel are adequate and desired by partners and wear expensive clothes to impress potential partners. However, not everyone focuses on just looks like birds do, but also look for partners with a particular personality and attitude.

The jungle is a wondrous place filled with the most remarkable of species which aren’t found anywhere else. However, the jungle does face many threats including deforestation which has seen many of these great species disappear.  As we too had relied on the jungle for survival, is it not our right to help protect these places for many, many years to come?

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Aoibhe McCarron 

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles – Aoibhe McCarron 

Planet Earth 2 – Jungles

Guest Blog by: Aoibhe McCarron  

This Episode of Planet Earth II was about jungles and their inhabitants. We start off with a family of spider monkeys living in the top layer of the canopy. Spider monkeys are primates like us but they are adapted to this extreme niche by having long limbs and a prehensile tail that can grip like a hand. 1/3 of Spider monkeys never make it to adulthood due to the extreme heights they live at, but this is the risk they take to keep themselves safe from danger on the jungle floor and competition lower down in the trees. Our current situation reflects this, we must stay at home to keep ourselves safe and avoid catching the corona virus.

Next we meet the Draco lizard, they are the size of a pencil. Once they find the right tree, it can be a home for life supplying a constant conveyor belt of ants for them to feed on. When the little Draco lizard finds the perfect tree, he unfortunately finds this tree is already occupied by another Draco. What he does to escape a fight is an incredible adaptation to his habitat of ancient tall trees, he leaps from the tree and uses his wing like skin flaps to glide to freedom.  The lengths he takes to avoid competition and conflict with others is not unlike our current isolation situation. Like him, we should avoid conflict and taking many resources for ourselves. To share them equally is to increase our chances of survival.

In Ecuador, there are over 100 species of hummingbird, all competing for the same thing; nectar. The swordbill is one of these hummingbird species and is the only bird to have a beak longer than its body. This is a special adaptation which helps him outcompete other hummingbirds; they have their own supply of nectar from long flowers that other hummingbirds can’t reach. However, with this comes sacrifices, the swordbill cant preen his feathers like other hummingbirds and the long beak can be hard to clean and sometimes makes life a little awkward for him. This is the sacrifice they make to ensure their food supply and survival, similar to the sacrifices we are making right now to ensure our survival as a species.

In Brazil, the ecosystem is so jam-packed, that it supports giants.  There are Capybara (the world’s biggest rodents), otters the size of men as well as 10 foot long Caiman. Each section of the river/jungle edge is ruled by a different queen Jaguar, who have an abundant supply of Capybara to prey on. No other ecosystem in the world supports this many big cats. The male Jaguar is much heavier and does not bother with the Capybara, they are too wary and there is too much competition from females. He leaps into the water and preys on Cayman. This is an ecosystem where due to extreme competition, giants must eat giants. This is reflective of the competition we are currently facing as a species. We must think outside the box like the male Jaguar to avoid overcrowding and make sure there are enough resources for everyone.

In Costa Rica, The glass frog is adapted to his jungle environment by being almost completely transparent, so that predators cannot see him. He guards several clusters of eggs. Wasps approach, they specialise in hunting frog’s eggs so he must be on high alert. He defends the youngest clusters of eggs. His back is very similarly patterned to an egg cluster, so this acts as a decoy and confuses the wasps and they try to prey on him. He uses his strong hind legs to kick them off. This is a huge risk the little frog takes to protect his young, as a single one of the wasp’s stings could kill him. Fortunately he is successful in fending off the wasps and protecting the majority of his young. This is not dissimilar to the huge risk front line workers are taking to protect their children, by moving out of their homes or staying away from their children as much as possible. As hard as this can be, it will ensure that more children and families survive to see the end of this pandemic.

The episode finishes off with a family of Indri in Madagascar. These are the largest lemur species, and like us, primates. They are so closely adapted to the jungle that they cannot survive anywhere else and the jungle is their sanctuary. In the past 10 years in Madagascar alone, 10000 square kilometres of jungle have disappeared and along with it, half of all Indri families. Each jungle animal must find its own way of surviving the jungle competition, almost all plant and animals have their origins there, and we must remember that we too once depended on the jungle.  Just like the COVID 19 pandemic is separating families, we have been doing the same thing to our jungle cousins for many years.